In the early morning of September 3, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, and William Temple Franklin went to Paris with four official copies of the treaty that was to end the War for American Independence.3 With Adams, they gathered in Hartley`s apartments at the York Hotel. There, the texts were revised and the two secretaries – William Temple Franklin and George Hammond – certified the copies of the commissions that were to be attached to them. At half past ten, the four directors signed the treaties and affixed their seals “with the most complete cordiality on both sides,” as Hartley wrote. Cordiality may have prevailed, but it was not the contract that one of them had hoped for. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ended the American War of Independence. American statesmen Benjamin Franklin, John Adams and John Jay negotiated the peace treaty with representatives of King George III. of Great Britain. In the Treaty of Paris, the British Crown officially recognized American independence and ceded most of its territory east of the Mississippi River to the United States, doubling the size of the new nation and paving the way for westward expansion. Preamble.
declares the Treaty as “in the name of the Most Holy Undivided Trinity” (followed by a reference to Divine Providence), declares the good faith of the signatories and declares the intention of both parties “to forget all the misunderstandings and differences of the past” and “to ensure both eternal peace and harmony”. On September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed by the three American negotiators John Adams, Benjamin Franklin and John Jay, as well as by David Hartley, who represented King George III. The contract was signed at the historic Hôtel d`York in Paris. The Treaty of Paris was signed on 14 September. It was ratified by the U.S. Congress of the Confederacy on April 9, 1784, and by the British Parliament on April 9, 1784. The pre-articles of the Treaty of Paris were signed on 30 November 1782. America was represented by John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens. Britain was represented by Richard Oswald and David Hartle. France signed provisional articles in January 1783. After the treaties were signed, the commissioners sent a messenger to Versailles, as Vergennes had requested.8 The British and Spanish ambassadors and their secretaries met in vergennes` chambers between noon and an hour to sign their own treaties.
(The Anglo-Dutch provisional treaty had been signed the day before.) This agreement was reached at three o`clock in the afternoon, after which Vergennes hosted a dinner for those involved in the four negotiations. There were 31 at the table.9 A painting was to be made of the signature, but when asked to pose for the photo, the British refused. They were too proud to have their faces in painting what amounted to defeat. The picture is still incomplete today. 6. “When a treaty is signed between two crowned heads,” Fox told Hartley, “to avoid disputes over primacy, the name of one is the first in one instrument and the other in the other, but if the contract is between a crowned head and a republican, the name of the monarch is first mentioned in each instrument. I believe that if you ask the Diplomatic Corps about this, you will find that this has been the ongoing practice. Hartley replied that he never had a chance to use that argument because the Americans had never raised the issue: Fox to Hartley, 21. August 1783; Hartley at Fox, 1 Sept. 1783 (Giunta, Emerging Nation, I, 923, 930).
In fact, it was not a change from previous articles. Peace negotiations began in Paris in April 1782 and lasted all summer. The United States was represented by Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, Henry Laurens and John Adams. David Hartley and Richard Oswald represented Great Britain. The treaty was drafted on 30 November 1782 and signed by Adams, Franklin, Jay, and Hartley on 3 Sept. 1783 at the Hôtel d`York (now rue Jacob 56) in Paris. The final contract was signed on 3 September 1783 at the Hôtel d`York at 56 rue Jacob. On the same day, France, Spain and the Netherlands signed separate agreements with the United Kingdom. These separate peace treaties between supporters of America and Britain are known as the Peace of Paris. Although the Treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ended the War of Independence between America and Britain, tensions between the two nations continued to rise over issues left unresolved by the treaty.
3. The four copies, which are known to have been signed on 3 September, were drawn up by WTF or prepared under its supervision. Two are entirely in the hands of WTF: the main copy of the American commissioners (published here) and one of the two copies marked “Duplicate” that they sent to Congress (National Archives). The treaty that Hartley would bring to England (Public Record Office) and the second copy of the Congress (National Archives) were written by the French secretary of BF, Jean L`Air de Lamotte, WTF adding the last date line. On the version given to Hartley, WTF also wrote the first lines. 9. Manchester sent a letter to London as soon as the signature was completed: Giunta, Emerging Nation, II, 137. The number of guests, 11 of whom were named, was in the Gas. of Leiden, 12 September 1783. It was claimed that the Duke of Croÿ was also present and exchanged witty remarks with Vergennes. .